• 1. What is ICZM?

    • ICZM stands for Integrated Coastal Zone Management. ICZM is a process for the management of the coast using an integrated approach, regarding all aspects of the coastal zone in an attempt to achieve sustainability.

      The European Commission defines ICZM as follows:

      "ICZM is a dynamic, multidisciplinary and iterative process to promote sustainable management of coastal zones. It covers the full cycle of information collection, planning (in its broadest sense), decision making, management and monitoring of implementation. ICZM uses the informed participation and cooperation of all stakeholders to assess the societal goals in a given coastal area, and to take actions towards meeting these objectives. ICZM seeks, over the long-term, to balance environmental, economic, social, cultural and recreational objectives, all within the limits set by natural dynamics. 'Integrated' in ICZM refers to the integration of objectives and also to the integration of the many instruments needed to meet these objectives. It means integration of all relevant policy areas, sectors, and levels of administration. It means integration of the terrestrial and marine components of the target territory, in both time and space."

  • 2. What is the significance of the term 'integrated' in ICZM?

    • The term 'integrated' can be interpreted in a number of ways. It therefore becomes necessary to define the term from the point of view of coastal zone management. There are 5 different levels at which integration occurs, in an ICZM project:

      a. Integration among different sectors such as industrial, governmental, non-governmental, and within each sector too there are a number of sub-sectors in existence.

      b. Integration between land and water elements of the coastal zone. This type of integration takes into consideration the dynamic relationship between all the ecosystems that exist along the coast and their interdependence.

      c. Integration among levels of government: There is a high need for collaboration and cooperation between different levels of governance at the taluka, district, state and national levels as well as across the different departments of the government for the successful implementation of ICZM.

      d. Integration between nations: Although ICZM as a project might observe geographical and political boundaries, its positive effects are global in nature as the coastal & marine ecosystems do not observe these demarcations. Thus, ICZM is an important tool on a global scale and if goals and beliefs are in common on a supranational scale, large scale problems could be mitigated or avoided.

      e. Integration among disciplines: The ICZM project requires knowledge from all disciplines such as scientific, cultural, traditional, political, and local expertise to achieve a truly holistic approach towards management of the coast.

  • 3. What is a Coastal Zone?

    • A coastal zone can be defined as: "The band of dry land and adjacent ocean space (water and submerged land) in which terrestrial processes and land uses directly affect oceanic processes and uses and "vice versa".

  • 4. What is the importance of a coastal zone and the need to manage it?

    • The dynamic processes that occur within the coastal zones produce diverse and productive ecosystems that are of great importance historically for human populations. However, due to extensive anthropogenic activities along the coast such as fishing, ship building and industrialization the coastal zone and the existing ecosystems have degraded considerably. In India, a coastal zone with a once dense mangrove cover and healthy stretch of coral reefs has now been reduced to patches of mangroves and coral reefs putting the associated marine bio-diversity in great peril.

      As a whole, human activity along the coast degrades the systems by taking unsustainable quantities of resources. The effects are further exacerbated with the input of pollutant wastes. This provides the need for management. Due to the complex nature of human activity along the coast, a holistic all encompassing approach is needed for coastal zone management.

  • 5. Which factor is imperative for ICZM to be successful?

    • There are a number of factors that are necessary for the success of ICZM. However, the most important factor is that of sustainability. Sustainability is not an end stage but a continuous process of decision making, to readjust the equilibrium between development and the process of protection of the environment. There are three main points that define sustainability as a concept:

      a.Economic development to improve the quality of life of the people

      b.Economic development that is also environmentally appropriate

      c.Equitable development that ensures overall progress across different strata of society

  • 6. What are the locations in which ICZM has been or is being implemented?

    • The innumerable benefits of ICZM are no secret and therefore, ICZM has now adopted a global character with almost all the countries of the world, either implementing or intending to implement ICZM projects. Some of the countries implementing ICZM in their coastal areas are Bangladesh, China, New Zealand, Sudan, Australia, Canada, The Netherlands, Belgium and a number of other European countries.

      In India, a number of attempts have been made towards setting up Coastal Zone Management Projects in different States. However, it is for the first time that an Integrated Approach towards coastal zone management is being undertaken in the country as part of the ICZM Project.

      In India, the first phase of the ICZM Project is being implemented in the three States of Orissa, West Bengal and Gujarat.

  • 7. What is the Coastal Zone Regulation (CRZ) Notification of 2010?

    • The draft Coastal Zone Regulation Notification has been issued by the Ministry of Environment & Forests for protection and conservation of the coastal environment. The Coastal Zone Regulation notification declared coastal stretches as Coastal Regulation Zones and regulated activities in the CRZ.

  • 8. What are the objectives of the Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 2010?

    • The objectives of the Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 2010 are:

      a.To ensure livelihood security to the fishermen communities and other local communities living in the coastal areas

      b.To conserve and protect coastal stretches, its unique environment and its marine area from degradation

      c.To promote development in the coastal area in a sustainable manner based on scientific principles,taking into account the dangers of natural hazards such as sea level rise due to global warming.

  • 9. What is the Integrated Coastal Zone Management project?

    • Hither to, the approach to managing India's coastal zone has been a purely regulatory one, as per the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Notification of 1991, promulgated under the Environment Protection Act of 1986. This approach does not seem to provide room to balance coastal zone conservation and necessary economic growth in the area or seek convergence with other development activities. Increasing developmental pressure during the last decade led to inadvertent violations of legal provisions and the economic sector simultaneously demanded for rationalizing the present regulatory measures.

      In July 2004, the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) constituted an Expert Committee, under the chairmanship of Prof. M.S. Swaminathan, to carry out a comprehensive review of the Coastal Regulation Zone notifications, taking into account the findings and recommendations of all previous committees, judicial pronouncements and representations from various stakeholders and suggest suitable amendments accordingly. The committee also had the mandate to make the regulatory framework consistent with well established scientific principles of coastal zone management and more flexible, depending on the local characteristics of the coastal zone stretches to be protected.

      The committee submitted its report in Feb 2005. It recommended withdrawal of the regulation concept of coastal management and proposed the introduction of a larger concept of Integrated Coastal Zone Management by replacing Coastal Regulation Zones with Coastal Management Zones based on coastal vulnerability mapping and comprehensive management through community-based initiatives so as to ensure sustainability.

  • 10. What are the primary objectives of the ICZM India Project?

    • The Integrated Coastal Zone Management project in India is being implemented by the Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India in collaboration with the World Bank. The main objectives of the ICZM project are:

      a.To contribute towards increased understanding and acceptance of the need to protect, conserve and manage coastal natural resources

      b.To ensure safety to human life during natural disasters

      c.To ensure protection the economically and environmentally sensitive areas through habitat restoration programs and to develop management action programs for their sustainable development

      d.To develop alternative livelihood sources such as resource augmentation means, cultural and eco-tourism for the coastal population affected due to habitat restoration and resource conservation programs

      e.To develop a mechanism for sound management of quality of the environment.

      f.To promote environmentally, socially and sectorally compatible development activities along the coast

  • 11. What are the different components involved in the ICZM India project at the national level?

    • The different components involved in the ICZM project at a national level are:

      COMPONENT I:Vulnerability and Ecological Mapping

      COMPONENT II:National Institution Building and Capacity Strengthening

      COMPONENT III:Development and Implementation of state-level pilot investment approaches to Integrated Coastal Zone Management

  • 12. What are the primary expectations or outcomes of an ICZM project?

    • The major expected outcomes of an ICZM project are:

      a.To increase mangrove cover in the State through community based mangrove plantation activities.

      b.To enhance the capacity of coastal communities to sustainably manage the coastal resources

      c.To ensure livelihood enhancement and livelihood security of the coastal communities through assistance for establishment of micro-enterprises and development of livelihood opportunities.

      d.Pollution abatement initiatives to be undertaken through planned and targeted activities in areas of high risk. These areas will be identified through monitoring of bio-physical and chemical parameters of the coastal waters.

      e.Conservation and management of Marine National Park & Sanctuary to maintain intact the existent biodiversity and provide resources for its development and maintenance.

      f.Database creation of varied parameters such as floral and faunal diversity, existent mangrove cover, existent coral reef covers, chemical and bio-physical contents of coastal waters, etc. for informed and strategic decision making.

      g.Coral conservation through transplantation to restore the coral reefs that have been destroyed as a result of different factors – anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic.

      h. Sewerage treatment for Jamnagar City to prevent disposal of unused sewages into the coastal waters, thus ensuring a reduction in coastal pollution.

  • 13. What is the ICZM Project duration?

    • The ICZM project will be implemented in phases over a period of 5 years. The project duration is from 2010 – 2015.

  • 14. What is the budget allocated for ICZM Project?

    • The total budget of the ICZM India Project is INR 1150 crores. The budget allocated for ICZM Gujarat is INR 300 crores. This budget has been allocated on the basis of a loan approved by The World Bank.

  • 15. Which areas in India are included in the ICZM India project?

    • In India, the three states of West Bengal, Orissa and Gujarat have been identified as the areas for pilot implementation of the first phase of ICZM project. With long coastlines and unique biodiversity conditions, these three states prove to be excellent grounds and have been identified with great potential for pilot implementation of a coastal zone management project.